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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 44-57. Electron Beam Deflection Tube for Pulse Code Modulation . (Sears, R.W.)
Topics: beam, grid, electron, aperture, deflection, quantizing, pulse, code, tube, plate, output plate,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1249-1292. The Chirp z-Transform Algorithm and Its Application. (Rabiner, Lawrence R.; Schafer, Ronald W. ; Rader, Charles M.)
Topics: fourier, transform, chirp, discrete, algorithm, samples, frequency, contour, fast, magnitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 10. December 1968 pp 2273-2298. Statistical Analysis and Stochastic Simulation of Ground-Motion Data. (Liu, S.C.)
Topics: earthquake, spectral, density, simulation, spectra, random, accelerograms, rms, power, ground,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1991-2019. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The C Programming Language. (Ritchie, D.M.; Johnson, S.C.; Lesk, M.E.; Kernighan, B.W.)
Topics: array, language, pointer, function, compiler, variables, bcpl, programming, bell, expression, top...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1905-1929. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. (Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K.)
Topics: file, system, unix, user, program, files, directory, command, device, programs, operating system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 7. September 1981 pp 1585-1619. Digital Signal Processor: Voice-Frequency Transmission Treatment for Special-Service Telephone Circuits. (Blake, R.B.; Bolling, A.C.; Farah, R.L.)
Topics: transmission, digital, cable, equalizers, dttu, dsp, loss, canceler, filter, signal, transfer...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 9. November 1981 pp 2081-2105. Simultaneous Transmission of Speech and Data Using Code-Breaking Techniques. (Steele, R. ; Vitello, D.)
Topics: data, speech, transmission, errors, blocks, transmitted, noise, additive, logical, channel, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 7. September 1969 pp 2071-2102. Dielectric Rectangular Waveguide and Directional Coupler for Integrated Optics. (Marcatili, E.A.J.)
Topics: modes, dielectric, guide, refractive, equations, propagation, coupling, guides, waveguide, field,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 2. April 1929 pp 309-367. The Receiving System for Long-Wave Transatlantic Radio Telephony. (Bailey, Austin; Dean, S.W.; Wintringham, W.T.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directional, radio, receiving, transatlantic, array, frequency, desired,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 1. January 1937 pp 35-44. The Physical Reality of Zenneck's Surface Wave. (Wise, W. Howard)
Topics: wave, surface, zenneck, asymptotic, series, sin, tilt, plane, vertical, dipole, wave antennas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 112-140. Telephone Equipment for Long Cable Circuits. (Demarest, Charles S.)
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Topics: cable, equipment, repeater, signaling, jacks, mounted, circuits, apparatus, circuit, testing,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 9. November 1981 pp 2273-2278. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, university, digital, eta, sigma, communications, kappa, institute, stochastic, design, ieee...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1947-1969. UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective. (Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: system, unix, file, files, user, bell, program, programs, device, operating, virtual address,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 14: 4. October 1935 pp 680-697. Transatlantic Long-Wave Radio Telephone Transmission and RelatedPhenomena from 1923 to 1933. (Bailey, Austin; Thomson, Howard M.)
Topics: magnetic, radio, transmission, strength, correlation, curves, solar, field, activity, terrestrial,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 2. February 1975 pp 245-262. Optical-Fiber Packaging and Its Influence on Fiber Straightness and Loss. (Gloge, D.)
Topics: fiber, jacket, loss, surface, modulus, soft, drum, lateral, spectral, distortion, phase lag, loss...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 4. October 1936 pp 603-625. Corrosion of Metals---II. Lead and Lead-Alloy Cable Sheathing. (Burns, R.M.)
Topics: corrosion, lead, cable, cables, soil, anodic, conduit, sheathing, sheath, cent, carbon dioxide,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1337-1346. A Method for Simplifying Boolean Functions. (Scheinman, A.H.)
Topics: prime, implicants, numbers, boolean, function, residues, simplifying, decimal, functions, method,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 259-267. A Reactance Theorem. (Foster, Ronald M.)
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Topics: reactance, impedance, resonant, network, formulas, networks, theorem, circuits, formula,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 53: 6. July-August 1974 pp 1041-1078. Treatment of Microscopic Fluctuations in Noise Theory. (Thornber, K.K.)
Topics: fluctuations, noise, microscopic, correlation, statistics, velocity, spectral, noiseless,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 3. May 1959 pp 611-656. Probability of Error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: probability, sin, code, error, bound, exp, gaussian, asymptotic, bounds, cone, solid angle, code...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 2. April 1936 pp 310-333. Hyper-Frequency Wave Guides---Mathematical Theory. (Carson, John R.; Mead, Sallie P.; Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: dielectric, transmission, wave, hollow, frequency, characteristic, cylinder, attenuation, waves,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 1. January 1939 pp 76-118. Crossbar Dial Telephone Switching System. (Scudder, F.J.; Reynolds, J.N.)
Topics: crossbar, subscriber, sender, terminating, switch, incoming, marker, link, trunk, switches,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 10. December 1977 pp 1953-1982. WT4 Millimeter Waveguide System: Route Engineering and Sheath Installation. (Anderson, J.C.; Gretter, R.W.; West, T.J.)
Topics: sheath, profile, repeater, trench, curvature, beam, route, grade, engineering, waveguide, grade...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
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Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 4. October 1929 pp 613-631. A Method of Sampling Inspection. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: inspection, sampling, tolerance, average, method, defective, acceptance, sample, minimum, pieces,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 2. April 1933 pp 197-227. Some Results of a Study of Ultra-Short-Wave Transmission Phenomena. (Englund, C.R.; Crawford, A.B.; Mumford, W.W.)
Topics: antenna, transmission, field, intensity, hill, polarization, transmitter, reflection, airplane,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 2. April 1930 pp 364-389. Economic Quality Control of Manufactured Product. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: quality, variability, assignable, control, limits, journal, statistical, product, tensile,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 3. July 1929 pp 435-465. Magnetic Alloys of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt. (Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: alloys, magnetic, permeability, alloy, permalloy, hysteresis, cobalt, cent, annealed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 101-111. Permalloy, A New Magnetic Material of Very High Permeability. (Arnold, H.D.; Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: permalloy, permeability, magnetic, cent, properties, magnetizing, alloys, nickel, alloy,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 1-5. Transatlantic Communications - An Historical Resume (Kelly, Dr. Mervin J.; Radley, Sir Gordon)
Topics: cable, repeaters, transatlantic, telegraph, repeater, telephone, transmission, cables, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 2975-2997. Some Properties of a Nonlinear Model of a System for Synchronizing Digital Transmission Networks. (Sandberg, Irwin W.)
Topics: synchronizing, lemma, theorem, matrix, inf, buffer, digital, denotes, networks, arbitrary, positive...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 2. February 1972 pp 429-454. Power Distribution and Radiation Losses in Multimode Dielectric Slab Waveguides. (Marcuse, D.)
Topics: mode, power, modes, steady, correlation, waveguides, radiation, multimode, coupling, waveguide,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 1-72. The Mathematics of Physical Properties of Crystals. (Bond, Walter L.)
Topics: matrix, sin, strain, symmetry, axis, vector, crystal, crystals, electric, axes, entirely analogous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 5. May-June 1968 pp 623-650. Design of Monopulse Antenna Difference Patterns with Low Sidelobes. (Bayliss, E.T.)
Topics: sidelobe, pattern, aperture, difference, sidelobes, antenna, asymptotic, function, angle,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 4. October 1933 pp 377-430. Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calculation. (Fletcher, Harvey; Munson, W.A.)
Topics: loudness, tone, intensity, frequency, values, reference, tones, level, component, levels, intensity...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 995-1012. Human Factors Engineering Studies of the Design and Use of Pushbutton Telephone Sets (Deininger, R.L.)
Topics: keying, pushbutton, telephone, button, studies, interdigital, key, characteristics, contact, keyed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 7. September 1978 pp 2565-2573. Contributors of this Issue.
Topics: undersea, cable, bell, transmission, kappa, equipment, des, design, ecole, institute, transmission...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 5. September 1956 pp 991-1018. Electronics in Telephone Switching Systems. (Joel, A.E.)
Topics: switching, memory, electronic, electromechanical, telephone, electronics, devices, systems,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 1. January 1938 pp 17-48. The Impedance Concept and its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, wave, waves, impedances, reflection, ratio, radial, transmission, field, characteristic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 7. September 1977 pp 1321-1331. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: ess, bell, design, digital, development, worked, system, switching, tau, responsible, initially...
Bell System Technical Journal, 26: 4. October 1947 pp 852-869. Targets for Microwave Radar Navigation. (Robertson, Sloan D.)
Topics: reflector, effective, radar, response, area, wavelength, corner, aperture, dihedral, perpendicular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 9. November 1968 pp 1971-2013. Uniform Asymptotic Expansions for Saddle Point Integrals - Application to a Probability Distribution Occurring in Noise Theory. (Rice, Stephen O.)
Topics: exp, saddle, asymptotic, integrals, integral, polynomial, arg, equation, computed, coefficients,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 3113-3130. The Equivalence of Certain Harper Codes. (Buchner, Morgan M. Jr.)
Topics: harper, binary, code, codes, error, position, numerical, transmission, system, gray, binary...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 5. May-June 1970 pp 827-852. An Integral Charge Control Model of Bipolar Transistors. (Gummel, H.K.; Poon, H.C.)
Topics: base, collector, emitter, model, voltage, charge, parameters, current, capacitance, equation, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 3. July 1929 pp 482-492. A Generalization of Heaviside's Expansion Theorem. (Pennell, W.O.)
Topics: theorem, erf, expansion, equivalent, operator, equivalents, sinh, operational, heaviside, cosh,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 2. April 1940 pp 221-248. Electrical Wave Filters Employing Crystals with Normal and Divided Electrodes. (Mason, W.P.; Sykes, R.A.)
Topics: filters, crystal, lattice, impedance, attenuation, employing, crystals, filter, resonant, band,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 3. March 1965 pp 455-494. Imaging of Optical Modes -- Resonators with Internal Lenses. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: beam, lens, optical, focal, modes, resonators, parameters, resonator, diffraction, plane, principal...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 9. November 1966 pp 1583-1597. Phase and Amplitude Measurements of Coherent Optical Wavefronts. (Ruscio, Joseph T.)
Topics: beam, phase, laser, optical, measurements, center, distance, amplitude, transducer, loop, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 3. May 1962 pp 877-884. On Non-Computable Functions. (Rado, T.)
Topics: turing, computable, entries, valid, score, entry, machine, binary, binary turing, functions, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 61: 6. July-August 1982 pp 1131-1151. Automated Repair Service Bureau: Data Base System. (Franklin, C.M.; Vogler, J.F.)
Topics: data, base, lmos, bases, cable, telephone, host, record, data base, miniline, trouble report,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 61: 9. November 1982 pp 2387-2405. Database Systems: Structure of a Database File System for the UNIX OperatingSystem. (Rochkind, M.J. )
Topics: file, database, transaction, system, char, level, daddr, module, concurrency, xfs, unix system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 4. October 1930 pp 622-627. The Trend in the Design of Telephone Transmitters and Receivers. (Martin, W.H.; Davidson, W.F.)
Topics: transmitter, telephone, maximum, frequency, receiver, subcommittee, response, transmitters,...